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《新時代的中國能源發展》白皮書(10)(中英對照)

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3. Innovative Management of the Energy Sector and Improved Government Services

(三)創新能源科學管理和優化服務

Working to become a service-oriented government, the Chinese government has further transformed its functions, streamlined administration, delegated powers, improved regulation and upgraded services. It employs strategic plans and macro-policies on energy, and mobilizes resources for major undertakings. Better oversight and regulation of the energy market will deliver better results and promote fair competition among all market entities. Putting people and lives above everything else, China has remained firm in its commitment to safe production in the energy industry.

進一步轉變政府職能,簡政放權、放管結合、優化服務,着力打造服務型政府。發揮能源戰略規劃和宏觀政策導向作用,集中力量辦大事。強化能源市場監管,提升監管效能,促進各類市場主體公平競爭。堅持人民至上、生命至上理念,牢牢守住能源安全生產底線。

Igniting the vitality of market entities. China has extended reform in the energy sector to delegate powers, improve regulation, and upgrade services. This includes reducing approval by the central government for energy projects and delegating the approval power to local authorities for some projects. The requirement for government review and approval has been rescinded for energy projects about which market entities can decide at their own discretion. The number of items of preliminary review has been slashed and the threshold for market access has been lowered, while supervision during and after production has been enhanced and standardized. "Access to electricity" services have been improved. As a result, the time, procedures and cost needed for businesses to connect to the power grid have all been cut down. In addition, China has promoted the "internet plus government services" model, and expanded the practice of providing all energy-related government services at one simple window in localities where all relevant authorities have outlets, thereby improving one-stop services.

激發市場主體活力。深化能源“放管服”改革,減少中央政府層面能源項目核准,將部分能源項目審批核準權限下放地方,取消可由市場主體自主決策的能源項目審批。減少前置審批事項,降低市場準入門檻,加強和規範事中事後監管。提升“獲得電力”服務水平,壓減辦電時間、環節和成本。推行“互聯網+政務”服務,推進能源政務服務事項“一窗受理”“應進必進”,提升“一站式”服務水平。

Guiding the allocation of resources. In addition to other plans, including special plans and action plans, China has drawn up and implemented the "Strategy for Energy Production and Consumption Revolution (2016-2030)" for developing the energy sector. These define the overall goals and key tasks, and guide investment in the sector. In order to encourage market entities to appropriately explore and utilize energy resources, China has refined its fiscal, taxation, industrial, financing, and investment policies, implemented a nationwide ad valorem tax on crude oil, natural gas and coal, and raised excise tax on oil products. It is building a green finance incentive system to promote new energy vehicles and develop clean energy. China also encourages Renminbi settlement for trading in bulk energy commodities.

引導資源配置方向。制定實施《能源生產和消費革命戰略(2016-2030)》以及能源發展規劃和系列專項規劃、行動計劃,明確能源發展的總體目標和重點任務,引導社會主體的投資方向。完善能源領域財政、税收、產業和投融資政策,全面實施原油、天然氣、煤炭資源税從價計徵,提高成品油消費税,引導市場主體合理開發利用能源資源。構建綠色金融正向激勵體系,推廣新能源汽車,發展清潔能源。支持大宗能源商品貿易人民幣計價結算。

Promoting fair competition. China has overhauled the government's regulatory power and responsibilities, and gradually transformed regulation of the electricity sector to comprehensive regulation of the entire energy sector. It has tightened regulation of electricity transaction, distribution and supply, the market order, equitable connection to the power grid, and grid investment, cost and efficiency. China has also reinforced oversight of the opening of oil and gas pipeline facilities to all eligible users, increased information transparency of pipeline operators, and increased the utilization rate of these facilities. Random inspection by randomly selected staff and prompt release of inspection results have been expanded to the whole energy sector. Efforts have been intensified to establish a credit system in the energy industry, created in accordance with law lists of entities that have committed serious acts of bad faith, and to take joint punitive action against such acts, hence increasing the effectiveness of credit regulation. China exercises prudential regulation of new business forms to develop new drivers of growth. It also keeps energy hotlines open to ensure oversight by the public.

促進市場公平競爭。理順能源監管職責關係,逐步實現電力監管向綜合能源監管轉型。嚴格電力交易、調度、供電服務和市場秩序監管,強化電網公平接入、電網投資行為、成本及投資運行效率監管。加強油氣管網設施公平開放監管,推進油氣管網設施企業信息公開,提高油氣管網設施利用率。全面推行“雙隨機、一公開"監管,提高監管公平公正性。加強能源行業信用體系建設,依法依規建立嚴重失信主體名單制度,實施失信懲戒,提升信用監管效能。包容審慎監管新興業態,促進新動能發展壯大。暢通能源監管熱線,發揮社會監督作用。

Ensuring production safety. China has improved the accountability system for coal mine safety, raised the efficiency of coal mine supervision, regulation and law enforcement, created a standardized management system for coal mine safety, and built up its capacity for disaster prevention and control. As a result, coal mine safety has much improved. Enterprises share the main responsibility for power safety, industry regulators share the regulatory responsibility, and local authorities have the overall responsibility for safety in their respective jurisdictions. Oversight and management have been improved to ensure cybersecurity of the electricity system, as well as the safety and quality of electricity construction projects. Safety risks in the supply of electricity are manageable in general, and there has been no instance of extensive blackout. Meanwhile, through stronger safety regulation of the entire oil and gas industrial chain, China has maintained safety in oil and gas production. Thanks to sustained efforts to improve its system and capacity for nuclear safety regulation, China's nuclear power plants and research reactors are generally safe and secure, and the quality of nuclear projects under construction is well controlled as a whole.

築牢安全生產底線。健全煤礦安全生產責任體系,提高煤礦安全監管監察執法效能,建設煤礦安全生產標準化管理體系,增強防災治災能力,煤礦安全生產形勢總體好轉。落實電力安全企業主體責任、行業監管責任和屬地管理責任,提升電力系統網絡安全監督管理,加強電力建設工程施工安全監管和質量監督,電力系統安全風險總體可控,未發生大面積停電事故。加強油氣全產業鏈安全監管,油氣安全生產形勢保持穩定。持續強化核安全監管體系建設,提高核安全監管能力,核電廠和研究堆總體安全狀況良好,在建工程建造質量整體受控。

4. Improving the Rule of Law in the Energy Sector

(四)健全能源法治體系

Implementation of the rule of law is essential in the energy sector. It stabilizes expectations and creates long-term benefits. China aligns law making with reform and development in the energy industry, and has amended or abolished laws and regulations incompatible with the needs of reform and development in the sector. China adheres to the principle that administrative bodies must fulfill their statutory obligations and must not take any action that is not mandated by law, and sees that the government fully performs its functions in accordance with the law.

發揮法治固根本、穩預期、利長遠的保障作用,堅持能源立法同改革發展相銜接,及時修改和廢止不適應改革發展要求的法律法規;堅持法定職責必須為、法無授權不可為,依法全面履行政府職能。

Improving the system of energy laws. More laws and administrative regulations concerning the energy sector have been formulated or amended. Supervision and inspection of the enforcement of energy laws and regulations has been intensified. The work to enact, amend or repeal regulations and normative documents in the fields of electricity, coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power and new energy has been accelerated, in order to incorporate reform results into China's laws, regulations and major policies.

完善能源法律體系。推進能源領域法律及行政法規制修訂工作,加強能源領域法律法規實施監督檢查,加快電力、煤炭、石油、天然氣、核電、新能源等領域規章規範性文件的“立改廢”進程,將改革成果體現在法律法規和重大政策中。

Improving law-based governance of the energy sector. China is working to ensure law-based governance and see that the rule of law materializes in the entire process of making, enforcing, overseeing and managing energy strategies, plans, policies and standards. To raise awareness of the law, it is developing a new paradigm that features interaction and mutual support between the government and enterprises, which will help create an enabling environment across the nation for respecting, studying and observing the law. China has adopted new practices in administrative law enforcement by introducing a nationwide system for disclosing information on administrative law enforcement, a system for recording the entire enforcement process, a system for reviewing the legality of major enforcement decisions, and an accountability system. China will ensure that the channels for applying administrative reconsideration and filing administrative lawsuits remain open, that cases are handled in accordance with laws and regulations, that the legitimate rights and interests of administrative counterparts are protected in accordance with the law, and that people can see in every case that justice has been served.

推進能源依法治理。推進法治政府建設,推動將法治貫穿於能源戰略、規劃、政策、標準的制定、實施和監督管理全過程。構建政企聯動、互為支撐的能源普法新格局,形成尊法、學法、守法、用法良好氛圍。創新行政執法方式,全面推行行政執法公示制度、行政執法全過程記錄制度、重大執法決定法制審核制度,全面落實行政執法責任制。暢通行政複議和行政訴訟渠道,確保案件依法依規辦理,依法保護行政相對人合法權益,讓人民在每一個案件中切實感受到公平正義。

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pipeline ['paip.lain]

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n. 管道,管線

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utilize ['ju:tilaiz]

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vt. 利用

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reform [ri'fɔ:m]

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v. 改革,改造,革新
n. 改革,改良

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control [kən'trəul]

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n. 剋制,控制,管制,操作裝置
vt. 控制

 
relevant ['relivənt]

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adj. 相關的,切題的,中肯的

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paradigm ['pærədaim]

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n. 範例,示範,典範,[語]詞形變化表

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discretion [di'skreʃən]

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n. 謹慎,判斷力,個人選擇,選擇的自由
[計

 
overall [əuvə'rɔ:l]

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adj. 全部的,全體的,一切在內的
adv.

 
supervision [.sju:pə'viʒən]

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n. 監督,管理

 
implementation [.implimen'teiʃən]

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n. 落實,履行,安裝啓用

 


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